Law is not black or white, it's grey



Federal fraud lawyer 


Straight Talk On Being Charged With Fraud and Other White Collar Crimes

            You’re charged with fraud. 

            Or some other “white collar” crime.

            You’re worried.

            Perhaps a little frightened.

            You’re facing what seems the invincible power of governmental prosecutors.

            You fear what you see. 

            Or what you think you see:

            The very real possibility of conviction, and maybe even, the loss of your freedom. 

            Your professional reputation, the family that you love, and the future for which you planned, now seem to hang in the balance. 

            But before resigning yourself to losing a game that hasn’t even begun, take a deep breath and read the next sentence:


           The government does not like to prosecute fraud cases.


            The government does not like to prosecute fraud cases.

            One more time: 

            The government does not like to prosecute fraud cases.

            Now impress those nine words on your brain, or write the sentence down on a piece of paper and keep it with you at all times.

            Then, when your runaway emotions begin to deceive you into believing that your world is hopelessly falling apart, you can be reminded of this fundamental truth about criminal prosecutions for fraud, and why so many white collar cases end in desirable plea negotiations, if not outright dismissal.

            Of course, there is no question: any criminal prosecution is a cause for serious concern. 

            But if you are charged with fraud or what some authorities call “economic crimes,” you are in a far better position, an enviable one in fact, compared to those charged with street crimes.

            You may ask: why is it true that the government does not like to prosecute fraud cases?

            Well, years ago, there was a notorious bank robber named Willy Sutton.

            When he was finally caught by police, a reporter asked him why he robbed banks. 

            Sutton’s answer:

            “Because that’s where the money is.”

            Now, when it comes to fraud prosecutions, the government knows that’s not where the money is.

            In other words, in the government’s crusade against crime, prosecution for fraud and other economic offenses is often so complex, and so demanding upon the limited time and budgets of governmental attorneys, these are the last kind of cases they want to prosecute.

            Also, in fraud cases, (and this is true for other types of “white collar” crime), the line between guilt and innocence is rarely clear compared with so-called “street” crimes, such as robbery, drug trafficking, and battery. 

            The overriding reason is that the facts alleged in street crime cases are far easier to understand than the facts alleged in most white collar crimes.

            In marked contrast, circumstances charging a person with fraud, and other so-called economic offenses, are often highly complicated or abstract.

            And so they are highly difficult to explain to someone unfamiliar with the facts, if not with the underlying subject matter.

            In other words, fraud allegations are never simple, and so, they are never easy for prosecutors to communicate their allegations to jurors in a clear and concise way.

            And this is true even without an aggressive defense attorney, on behalf of his client, fighting tooth and nail, to impede the government’s aim.

            The complicated nature of fraud allegations poses a serious problem for the government because criminal prosecutions always require the government to convince a panel of jurors of the defendant’s guilt in a clear, simple, and concise way.

Five Reasons Prosecution of Fraud Cases Are Generally Shunned By Governmental Attorneys

            (1) First, unlike white collar cases, in cases that concern street crimes, the government presents the jury with evidence that the jurors can immediately understand: a dead body, a gun, illegal drugs, large quantities of cash, sometimes fingerprints and DNA. So whereas in street crime, the existence of guns, cash, and drugs make the matter concrete, allegations of fraud and other economic crimes predominantly consist of abstractions.

            (2) Second, violent crimes, such as attempted murder and grand theft, revolve around a few very brief, isolated moments, for example, a person wielding a gun, or hot wiring a car. While street crimes occur in brief, fixed moments in time (say, an encounter in a dark alley, or a fleeting hand-to-hand transaction on a street corner in a poor neighborhood) allegations of economic-based crimes often comprehend months if not years of activity.

            (3) Third, in listening to testimony, and evaluating evidence, in a case that alleges the commission of street crime, jurors draw upon a lifetime of experience watching television programs and motion pictures, (if they have not been victims of street crimes themselves.) So jurors are able to intuitively understand the meaning of the charges.   Hence, while the ideas of killing, stealing, and drug-dealing can be freely understood, notions of things like embezzlement, racketeering, and insider training require highly labored efforts by prosecutors to carefully, and successfully educate, jurors about the precise meaning of those uncommon words, and arcane actions.

            (4) In addition, the victims of violent crimes are usually highly sympathetic precisely because the victims are individual people who have suffered physical injuries (e.g., a battery, a knife wound, etc. . .) or personal property losses (e.g., a stolen wallet, a snatched purse). In contrast, in allegations of fraud and other white collar crimes, the victims are commonly impersonal abstractions: corporations and other business entities. In other words, rightly or wrongly, jurors can be expected to be more troubled by a strong-arm robbery in which the victim, a human being, is alleged to have lost twenty dollars in a violent encounter, than by an allegation of embezzlement in which a corporation is alleged to have lost a hundred thousand dollars. That’s because every juror can identify with an individual person on the street who suffers an injury at the hands of another, but very few jurors can put themselves in the place of a corporate entity or business enterprise that has, according the government’s claims, lost money.

            (5) In addition, fear of being defrauded or the victim of some other white collar crime does not generate votes and political contributions, and so, such economic crimes don’t lend themselves to exploitation like fear of street crime.

            Does all this mean that people are never convicted of fraud?

            Of course not.

            But if you check the archives of federal and state prosecutions, fraud cases are relatively few and far between.

            But what about those sensational cases that make the headlines?

            In those cases, it is not the crime itself, but the sensational nature of the amount of money involved, or other scandalous circumstances, that draw the attention of the media (and, no doubt, originally drew the attention of prosecutors). 

            And if the government won those cases, it could be because, wanting to make the defendants an example in order to scare others from committing such crimes, and knowing the attention the case would garner from the media, the government worked overtime, with the huge resources at their disposal, to insure it obtained the conviction it prized. 

            Or the government could have won those sensational cases because the playing field was never level to begin with. But as to the hidden, and biased, dynamics of the courtroom, let’s leave that for another conversation.

            Nevertheless, no matter how sensational such cases may be, they don’t change the fundamental fact that the government doesn’t like to prosecute fraud cases, especially relatively small ones in which the injury is not a personal one that they can expect jurors to care about.

            Because fraud and other financial crimes involve subtleties of business judgment, it is especially important that prosecutors, not only have the ability to grasp the nuances of the relevant business, but also the government’s lawyers need the rare ability to cast the obtuse allegations in terms that are understandable to the average juror. Because the case load of federal and state prosecutors is commonly heavy, and endless, this is often a tall order to fulfill.



            (1) One of the common tactics of the government when prosecuting an economic criminal offense, (and other charges as well) is to try to intimidate the defendant, and his attorney, by throwing reams and reams of mostly irrelevant documents at them. In this way, the government hopes to prevail by frightening the defendant’s attorney with the sheer volume of paperwork that has to be reviewed, if not studied, for relevance and significance. Such cheap and transparent tricks suggest the government’s case is weak, or that the prosecutor is hoping to intimidate the defendant into accepting an undesirable plea offer. 

            (2) Very few cases go to trial, something like five percent or less. And it’s true that the overwhelming majority of federal and state cases alike result in “plea bargains” in which the government agrees to lower charges, the number of counts, and the sentence. When this happens, the government saves itself the formidable costs of time, money, and labor, and eliminates the risk of losing the case, in exchange for the defendant’s agreement to pleading guilty.

            (3) While when facing initial indictment or arrest, your mind may run away with itself creating all sorts of desperate scenarios, in fact, and you must always remember this: you never know what the future holds. I’ll give you a good example. In the case of United States v. Reddy Annappareddy, the defendant was charged with health care fraud. The federal government alleged Mr. Annappareddy obtained Medicaid payments for pills never given to his patients by having his pharmacies submit bills for more pills than they received. The judge threw the entire case out of court, finding in a written opinion that the government’s conduct was so improper that it “shocked the conscience of the court.” In prosecuting Mr. Annappareddy, the government failed to disclose material evidence and presented false testimony to the court. Now, ask yourself: when initially facing indictment, and at those inevitably harrowing and stressful moments of arrest, did Mr. Annappareddy have any idea that he would ultimately win the case because of the prosecution’s misconduct? So never panic or presume your imagined dark outlook necessarily corresponds to what will actually happen. Rather, humble yourself and remember that you never know what the future holds.


            You need to keep the following fact in mind, (and remember where you heard it):

            Defense lawyers in most cases have a strong incentive to encourage their clients to enter into plea agreements.

            The principle of self-interest is at work. 

            The less work an attorney invests in a case, the greater his profit.

            In addition, by minimizing the time he spends on a case, an attorney is able to further increase his profit by freeing up his time to take additional cases and so, make more money.

            The math is simple. Let’s use criminal prosecution for a street crime as an example. A person is charged with grand theft of the third degree. Let’s say the average fee that attorneys charge for such representation is five-thousand dollars. Well, if the lawyer wants to maximize his profit, all he needs to do is, regardless of the evidence, counsel his client, with the authority he carries as a professional, that going to trial presents the defendant with a dangerous risk of being sent to prison, whereas the plea bargain, let’s say probation, minimizes the sentence to be imposed.

            What such a lawyer won’t tell the client is that he, the lawyer, has not undertaken the earnest labor of conscientiously investigating the pertinent facts, and researching the controlling law. These are necessary prerequisites to competently counseling one’s client about the value, if any, of a plea offer extended by the government.

            In addition, the lawyer who misadvises his client fails to explain that to accept probation in order to avoid a prison sentence can itself be a highly risky and dangerous proposition, one that may, almost surely, result in the defendant being sentenced to a long term of prison.

            Why? Because when a person goes on probation, he automatically loses some highly critical rights.

            If charged with violating probation, the defendant has lost his right to bring his case before a jury, and he is subject to the will and whim of the judge.

            And judges often see every probationer as guilty.

            In addition, when defending against charges that he violated probation, a defendant has lost the right to demand the government prove the defendant’s guilty beyond any and all reasonable doubt, an extremely high probability of guilt.

            For probation cases, the standard for determining guilt is much lower; the government must only prove its case to the judge by a preponderance of evidence, in other words, 51 percent probability of guilt.

            Finally, a defendant who has pled guilty, or even no contest, has lost important credibility. Rather than one who, as a matter of law, is considered innocent until proven guilty, the defendant who agreed to be placed on probation is now considered a criminal. 

            So if you are charged with health care fraud, or computer fraud, or any other white-collar crime, remember: the government does not like to prosecute fraud cases. 

            Such cases are too complex, too costly, and too much work. 

            Finding a caring and insightful defense attorney who understands the dynamics of fraud prosecutions will go a long way to frustrating the government in its already unwanted burden.

            I believe I’m one of those attorneys. 

            So I invite you to call me today so we can meet and talk about your case.


Fraud cases in Federal Court

Fraud is a crime of dishonesty.  What drives fraud cases in federal criminal court?  The amount of loss.  In other words, how much was taken?  Or, how much was intended to be taken?  The higher the number, the higher the sentence.  The guideline range is deeply affected by the amount of loss.  

What are the most common federal fraud charges?

Medicare fraud, Medicaid fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, embezzlement, counterfeiting or making counterfeit money, identity theft, insurance fraud, money laundering, securities fraud, telemarketing fraud, bankruptcy fraud, business fraud and theft, internet fraud, credit card fraud, check fraud, and mortgage fraud (really bank fraud).

Medicare Fraud and Medicaid Fraud

Medicare fraud and Medicaid fraud have cost the federal government billions of dollars.  In 2007, the feds uncovered more than a half-billion dollars in fraudulent claims in South Florida alone.  There are many different ways companies and individuals can fraudulently bill Medicare and Medicaid. Knowing and intentional deception or misrepresentation, which results in some unauthorized medical payment or benefit to a person, entity, or to a third party, can result in charges of health care fraud.

The government can charge a defendant for health care fraud under more than one statute. For instance, false statements that are submitted to the government to get paid by Medicare may be prosecuted under the false statement statute, 18 USC section 1001 or under the mail fraud statute.  Also, the anti-kickback statute outlaws paying someone for a referral of a Medicare patient.  In a Medicare anti-kickback case, the measure of restitution is the amount of the kickbacks paid.

One example of medicare health care fraud is billing for services not rendered. One common act is billing for durable medical equipment (commonly called “DME”) that was never bought, rented, or delivered. Durable medical equipment includes things like: wheelchairs, walkers, respirators and motorized scooters. back braces, canes, electric beds and shower-transfer tubs.

Some doctors bill for procedures they never performed. Sometimes there are false billing records made in order to support the fraudulent bills. Other examples of health care fraud include kickbacks, infusion therapy and fraudulent cost reports.

In Miami, Florida, the Feds have a new Medicare Fraud Strike Force. The Feds are arresting and charging people left and right for Medicare fraud. Typically, the Feds will also charge conspiracy to defraud the Medicare program, criminal false claims, and violations of the anti-kickback statutes.

Mail Fraud & Wire Fraud

Under 18 USC 1341, U.S. law outlaws the use of mail to further a scheme to defraud. To prove it, the government must show that the defendant intentionally participated in a scheme or artifice to defraud and used the United States mails to carry out that scheme or artifice to defraud. Materiality is an element of both mail fraud and wire fraud offenses. The fraudulent scheme does not have to be successful in order for the government to get a conviction against you. Each mailing is a separate offense.  Conspiracy to commit mail fraud may also be charged with mail fraud charges.

Under 18 USC 1343, the wire fraud statute, the government must prove that the defendant intentionally participated in a scheme to defraud and used wire communications to further that scheme.  Investment fraud or “ponzi scheme” charges often accompany mail fraud and/or wire fraud charges.  Conspiracy to commit wire fraud is also commonly charged with wire fraud.


Embezzlement is the fraudulent appropriation of property or money entrusted to a person’s care but owned by someone else, to his or her own use. For example, a clerk or cashier can embezzle money from his or her employer; a civil servant can embezzle funds from the treasury. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines embezzlement as the “misappropriation or misapplication of money or property entrusted to one’s care, custody or control.”


Counterfeiting involves the creation of forged (fake) versions of bills (negotiable instruments), checks, bonds, or other valuable documents. It is amazing what you can print with a simple color printer these days.  

Sometimes, the scam involving making counterfeit money goes like this: You take a $5 bill, bleach it and imprint the $100 on top of it.  That way, if a clerk holds the bill up to the light, there will be a hologram of a face.  That face is still good ol' Abe Lincoln though, not Ben Franklin.  

In order to be guilty of counterfeiting, a person must have intent to deceive or defraud. Many crimes may be categorized as counterfeiting. Possession of paper closely resembling the paper used by the Treasury to print money may result in being charged with a Class B Felony. Regulations regarding forgery crimes such as forging military discharges (498) and changing the VIN on your car (512) are addressed by Title 18 of the U.S. Code, Chapter 25.

The investigation and enforcement of counterfeiting of U.S. obligations and securities is under the direct jurisdiction of the U.S. Secret Service. The Secret Service Financial Crimes Division may also investigate forgery of government bonds, checks, and other bank fraud.  Individuals may be accused of counterfeiting without even knowing that the currency or other instrument in their possession was forged. A person arrested under these circumstances may face charges, including conspiracy.

Identity Theft

Identity theft is growing rapidly. It is a federal crime, pursuant to the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998, to knowingly transfer or use the identifying documentation of another person without legal authority, and with the intent to commit, aid, or abet unlawful criminal activity.   Identity theft tax refund schemes are common.

Insurance Fraud

Making an insurance claim or increasing the amount of a claim by deceptive statements or misrepresentations regarding the nature of the loss can result in charges of insurance fraud. Insurance fraud is a form of theft by deception.  What's the most common type of insurance fraud?  When insurance agents take their client's (the policyholder) premium and put it in their pockets.  Sometimes it is called “premium diversion”.  There also may be financial statement fraud by the corporate executives.  The insurance big wigs can be charged with insurance fraud as well.  A common insurance fraud charge in Florida is setting up a staged car accident.  They stage an accident with other people.  Then they make insurance claims for injuries (some may be actually injured in the accident).  They also make insurance claims to get the car/truck fixed (called a property damage claim).

Money Laundering

Filtering dirty money, or the proceeds from illegal activities, through a series of transactions until the funds appear to be proceeds from legal activities, is illegal and can result in money laundering charges.  

Securities Fraud

Any manipulative or deceptive activities which affect the purchase or sale of a securities, usually including the misrepresentation or omission of material information is Securities Fraud and can result in serious criminal charges. The Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are two laws which seek to counter this type of criminal activity in order to protect investors.  Mail fraud and/or wire fraud charges often accompany securities fraud charges.

Telemarketing Fraud

Any scheme designed to obtain money or property from victims using dishonesty, and deceptive behavior using telemarketing, is telemarketing fraud, and can result in criminal charges.  

Bankruptcy Fraud

Concealment and misrepresentation of assets as part of bankruptcy proceedings can constitute bankruptcy fraud. Bankruptcy statutes can be used in the prosecution of both individuals and organizations. Title 11 of the U.S. Code addresses bankruptcy fraud, and criminal sanctions for bankruptcy fraud are located in Title 18 of the U.S. Code, 152 and 157.

The Internal Revenue Service's criminal investigation bankruptcy fraud program is the government agency charged with investigating bankruptcy fraud cases. Following investigation by the IRS, cases are referred to the Department of Justice for prosecution. In 2006, the average sentence for those convicted of bankruptcy fraud was 29 months in either federal prison or some other form of detention. Generally, those convicted of bankruptcy fraud face fines, imprisonment of no more than five years, or both.

Business Fraud and Theft

Where an employee commits a theft against his/her employer, and the employee attempted to conceal the theft and used the assets for personal gain, business fraud charges may result. Business fraud and theft sanctions are addressed in 18 U.S.C. 641-649.

Internet Fraud

Internet fraud is any fraud scheme using the internet to present fraudulent solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions, or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to others organizations or individual connected to the scheme.

Credit Card Fraud

Using a credit card attached to a closed account, or that has been lost, or stolen, in order to purchase anything of value, can result in credit card fraud charges. Credit card fraud charges may result from crimes such as, counterfeiting credit cards, using lost or stolen cards, and fraudulently acquiring credit cards through the mail. Another form of credit card fraud is misappropriation, the crime of using a credit card number by itself to make purchases. Credit card fraud crimes are investigated and prosecuted primarily by the U.S. Secret Service. However, other state and federal agencies may pursue credit card fraud cases.

Credit card fraud crimes, and penalties are explained by Title 18, 1029 of the U.S. Code, which more broadly addresses the category of fraud and related activities in connection with access devices. An access device is a mechanism which allows access to account funds. Examples of access points may include devices such as, credit cards themselves to telecommunications equipment to PIN codes to counterfeit cards. Most credit card fraud today takes place through the computer and internet. 

Check Fraud

Writing a check on a closed account, or where there are insufficient funds to cover the check, forging a check, altering a check, or counterfeiting a check, can result in check fraud charges. In Florida state court, they charge defendants with issuing a worthless check. Any type of fraud is a crime of dishonesty. That means that even if it is a misdemeanor worthless check case that you are convicted of, you can be asked about it on the witness stand in any future proceeding.

Mortgage fraud or Bank Fraud 

Traditional mortgage fraud involved lying on a loan application to get a loan.  Loan originations are at lower levels now that the real estate bubble has burst.  There are signs that the real estate market is coming back though.  Foreclosures have been on the rise.  Mortgage fraud schemes are now targeting homeowners who are behind on their payments.  Distressed homeowner fraud is prevalent.  They may claim to “save” a home from foreclosure or get the borrower a loan modification.  Sometimes the FBI may use undercover agents who wear wires to gather evidence against a potential defendant for mortgage fraud or distressed homeowner fraud.  Who is in on it? Sometimes, it involves lawyers, realtors, bankers, accountants, appraisers.



“Law is not black and white, it's Grey”

Federal fraud lawyer Grey Tesh can handle wire fraud, mail fraud, medicare and medicaid fraud criminal charges all across Florida and the United States.  A criminal trial lawyer based out of West Palm Beach, Grey has satellite offices in Miami Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Estero, Orlando and Jacksonville, Florida.



Fraude / Hurto

Abogado Federal de fraude

El fraude es un delito de deshonestidad. Qué impulsa a los casos de fraude en un tribunal penal federal? La cantidad de la pérdida. En otras palabras, cuánto fue tomado? O, cuánto fue la cantidad que se pretendía tomar? Cuanto mayor sea el número, mayor es la sentencia. El margen de las guias de sentencias son profundamente afectadas por la cantidad de la pérdida.

Cuáles son los cargos de fraude federal más comunes?

El fraude contra Medicare, fraude de Medicaid, fraude postal, fraude electrónico, malversación, falsificación o fabricación de moneda falsa, robo de identidad, fraude de seguros, el lavado de dinero, fraude de valores, fraude de telemercadeo, fraude de quiebra, fraude comercial y el robo, el fraude por Internet, fraudes con tarjetas de crédito, comprobar el fraude y el fraude hipotecario (en realidad fraude bancario).

Fraude de Medicare y Fraude de Medicaid

El fraude de Medicare y fraude de Medicaid han costado miles de millones de dólares al gobierno federal. En el 2007, los federales descubrieron mas de quinientos millones de dólares en reclamaciones fraudulentas, sólo en el sur de Florida. Hay muchas maneras diferentes en las que empresas y los individuos pueden facturar fraudulentamente al Medicare y Medicaid. Conocer y engañar intencional o tergiversación, lo que resulta en pagos médicos no autorizadas o beneficios a una persona, entidad, o para un tercero, pueden resultar en cargos de fraude de atención médica.

El gobierno puede poner cargos a un acusado por fraude de atención médica bajo más de un estatuto. Por ejemplo, las declaraciones falsas que se presentan al gobierno para que se les pague por Medicare pueden ser procesados bajo el estatuto de declaración falsa, 18 USC sección 1001 o bajo el estatuto de fraude electrónico. Además, la ley anti-sobornos (anti-kickback statute) prohíbe pagar a alguien para que lo remitan a un paciente de Medicare. En un caso de anti-sobornos de Medicare, la medida de la restitución es el importe de las comisiones pagadas.

Un ejemplo de fraude Medicare de atención médica es la facturación por servicios no prestados. Un acto común es la facturación por equipo médico duradero (comúnmente llamado "DME") que nunca fue comprada, alquilada, o entregada. El equipo médico duradero incluye cosas como: sillas de ruedas, andaderas, respiradores y scooters motorizados, corsés para la espalda, bastones, camas eléctricas y bañeras de ducha de transferencia.

Algunos doctores facturan por procedimientos que nunca realizaron. A veces, hay registros de facturación falsa hechas con el fin de apoyar las facturas fraudulentas . Otros ejemplos de fraude de atención médica incluyen sobornos, la terapia de infusión y los informes de costos fraudulentos.

En Miami, Florida, los federales tienen una nueva fuerza de ataque contra el fraude de Medicare (Medicare Fraud Strike Force). Los federales están arrestando y acusando a la gente por fraude de Medicare. Por lo general, los federales también ponen cargos de conspiración para defraudar al programa de Medicare, declaraciones falsas criminales , y violaciónes de las leyes anti-soborno.

Fraude postal y fraude electrónico

Bajo el estatuto 18 USC 1341, la ley de los Estados Unidos prohíbe el uso de correo electrónico para impulsar un plan para defraudar. Para demostrarlo, el gobierno debe demostrar que el acusado participó intencionalmente en un esquema o artificio para defraudar y utiliza el correo de los Estados Unidos para llevar a cabo dicho plan o artificio para defraudar. La materialidad es un elemento de los dos delitos de fraude postal y fraude electrónico. El esquema fraudulento no tiene que ser exitoso para que el gobierno pueda obtener una convicción en tu contra. Cada envío es una ofensa separada. La conspiración para cometer fraude electrónico también puede ser acusado junto con cargos de fraude electrónico.

Bajo el estatuto 18 USC 1343, el estatuto de fraude electrónico, el gobierno debe demostrar que el acusado participó intencionalmente en un plan para defraudar y utiliza comunicaciones por cable para impulsar dicho plan. Cargos de fraude de inversión ó "esquema Ponzi", a menudo acompañan el fraude postal y/o cargos de fraude electrónico. La conspiración para cometer fraude electrónico también es comúnmente acusado de fraude electrónico.


La malversación es la apropiación fraudulenta de bienes o dinero confiado al cuidado de una persona, pero propiedad de otra persona, para su propio uso. Por ejemplo, un empleado o cajero puede malversar dinero de su empleador; un funcionario público puede malversar fondos de la tesorería. La Oficina Federal de Investigaciones (FBI) define la Malversación como la "apropiación indebida o uso indebido del dinero o de los bienes confiados a uno de cuidado, custodia o control."


La falsificación consiste en la creación de versiones forjados (falsos) de las facturas (instrumentos negociables), cheques, bonos u otros documentos de valor . Es increíble lo que se puede imprimir con una impresora de color simple en estos días.

A veces , la estafa que implica hacer dinero falso es la siguiente: Se toma un billete de $5, se blanquea y se imprenta el $100 en la parte superior de la misma. De esa manera, si un empleado tiene el proyecto de la luz, habrá un holograma de un rostro. Esa cara es todavía Abe Lincoln sin embargo, pero no Ben Franklin.

Para ser culpable de falsificación, una persona debe tener la intención de engañar o defraudar . Muchos delitos pueden ser categorizados como falsificación. La posesión de papel muy parecido al papel utilizado por el Tesoro para imprimir dinero puede resultar en ser acusado de un delito mayor de clase B. Regulaciones con respecto a los delitos de falsificación, tales como forjar descargas militares (498) y cambiando el VIN de su automóvil (512) se abordan en el Título 18 del Código de los Estados Unidos, en el capítulo 25.

La investigación y la aplicación de la falsificación de las obligaciones y los valores de los Estados Unidos está bajo la jurisdicción directa del Servicio Secreto de los Estados Unidos. La División de Delitos Financieros del Servicio Secreto también pueden investigar la falsificación de los bonos del gobierno, cheques y otros tipos de fraude bancario. Los individuos pueden ser acusados de falsificación y sin siquiera saber que la moneda u otro instrumento en su poder se forjó . Una persona arrestada bajo estas circunstancias pueden enfrentar cargos, entre ellos conspiración.

Robo de Identidad

El robo de identidad está creciendo rápidamente. Es un delito federal, conforme con el Robo de Identidad y Ley de Disuasión de 1998, de transferir o utilizar la documentación de identificación de otra persona sin autoridad legal a sabiendas y con la intención de cometer, ayuda o actividad criminal ilegal. El robo de identidad de devolución de impuestos son comunes.

Fraude de Seguros

Haciendo una reclamación de seguro o aumentando la cantidad de la reclamación por declaraciones engañosas o falsas representaciones con respecto a la naturaleza de la pérdida, puede resultar en cargos de fraude de seguros. El fraude de seguros es una forma de robo por engaño. Cuál es el tipo más común de fraude de seguros? Cuando los agentes de seguros toman la prima de seguros de sus cliente (dueño de una póliza ) y lo ponen en sus propios bolsillos. A veces se le llama "desviación de prima de seguros". También puede haber fraude en los estados financieros por los ejecutivos de las empresas. Los peces gordos de seguros pueden ser acusados de fraude de seguros también. Un cargo de fraude de seguros común en la Florida es la creación de un accidente de coche escenificado. Falsifican un accidente con otras personas. Luego hacen las reclamaciones de seguros por lesiones (algunos pueden ser realmente heridos en el accidente). Ellos también hacen las reclamaciones de seguros para obtener que el carro/camión sea reparado (llamado un reclamo de daños a la propiedad ).

Lavado de Dinero

El Filtrado de dinero sucio, o el producto de actividades ilegales, a través de una serie de transacciones hasta que los fondos parecen ser producto de actividades jurídicas, es ilegal y puede resultar en cargos de lavado de dinero.

Fraude de Valores

Todas las actividades manipulativas o engañosas que afectan a la compra o venta de valores, por lo general incluyendo la tergiversación u omisión de información material es fraude de valores y pueden resultar en cargos criminales graves. La Ley de Valores de 1933 y la Ley de Intercambio de Valores de 1934 son dos leyes que tratan de contrarrestar este tipo de actividad criminal con el fin de proteger a los inversores. Cargos de fraude postal y/o fraude electrónico a menudo acompañan a los cargos de fraude de valores.

Fraude de Telemercadeo

Cualquier esquema diseñado para obtener dinero o bienes de las víctimas mediante la deshonestidad y el comportamiento engañoso utilizando el telemercadeo, es fraude de telemercadeo, y puede resultar en cargos criminales.

Fraude de Bancarrota

El ocultamiento y la tergiversación de los activos como parte de un procedimiento de bancarrota puede constituir fraude de bancarrota. Estatutos de bancarrota pueden ser utilizados en el procesamiento de los individuos y las organizaciones. El Título 11 del Código de los Estado Unidos aborda el fraude de bancarrota, y las sanciones penales por fraude de bancarrota se encuentran en el Título 18 del Código de los Estados Unidos, 152 y 157.

El Programa de investigación del fraude de bancarrota del IRS es la agencia gubernamental encargada de investigar los casos de fraude de bancarrota. Después de la investigación por el IRS, los casos son referidos al Departamento de Justicia para su enjuiciamiento. En el 2006, la sentencia promedio para los condenados por fraude de bancarrota fue de 29 meses, ya sea en una prisión federal o alguna otra forma de detención. En general, las personas convictas por fraude de bancarrota, pueden enfrentar multas, encarcelamiento de no más de cinco años, o ambos.

Fraude empresarial y robo de Negocios

Cuando un empleado comete robo en contra de su empleador y el empleado trató de ocultar el robo y utilizó los activos para obtener beneficios personales, pueden dar lugar a acusaciones de fraude empresarial. Las sanciones por fraude empresarial y robo de negocios se abordan en 18 U.S.C. 641-649.

Fraude en Internet

El fraude en Internet es cualquier esquema de fraude usando el Internet para presentar solicitudes fraudulentas a las posibles víctimas, para realizar transacciones fraudulentas, o para transmitir los beneficios del fraude a las entidades financieras o de otras organizaciones o persona relacionada con el esquema.

Fraude con Tarjetas de Crédito

El uso de una tarjeta de crédito unida a una cuenta cerrada, o que se ha perdido, o ha sido robado, con el fin de comprar cualquier cosa de valor, puede resultar en cargos de fraude de tarjetas de crédito. Los cargos de fraude de tarjetas de crédito pueden ser consecuencia de delitos como, falsificación de tarjetas de crédito, el uso de tarjetas perdidas o robadas, y la obtención fraudulenta de tarjetas de crédito por correo. Otra forma de fraude de tarjetas de crédito es la apropiación indebida, el delito de uso de un número de tarjeta de crédito por sí mismo para hacer compras. Delitos de fraude de tarjetas de crédito son investigados y juzgados principalmente por el Servicio Secreto de los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, otras agencias estatales y federales pueden presentar los casos de fraude de tarjetas de crédito.

Los delitos de fraude de tarjetas de crédito, y las sanciones se explican en el Título 18, 1029 del Código de los Estados Unidos, que aborda de manera más amplia la categoría de fraude y las actividades conexas en relación con los dispositivos de acceso. Un dispositivo de acceso es un mecanismo que permite el acceso a la cuenta de fondos. Los ejemplos de los puntos dispositivos de acceso pueden incluir tales como, las propias tarjetas de crédito para los equipos de telecomunicaciones, el códigos PIN de tarjetas falsificadas. La mayoría de fraudes de tarjetas de crédito hoy en día se lleva a cabo a través de la computadora y del Internet .

Fraude de Cheques

Escribir un cheque en una cuenta cerrada, o cuando no hay fondos suficientes para cubrir el cheque, forjando un cheque, la alteración de un cheque, o la falsificación de un cheque, puede resultar en cargos de fraude de Cheques. En los tribunales del estado de Florida, se acusan a las personas con la emisión de un cheque sin valor. Cualquier tipo de fraude es un delito de deshonestidad. Eso significa que, incluso si se trata de un caso de delito menor de emisión de un cheque sin valor, y eres convicto, puede que te pregunten sobre eso, en el estrado de los testigos en cualquier procedimiento futuro.

Fraude Hipotecario o Fraude Bancario

El fraude hipotecario tradicional involucra mentir en una solicitud de préstamo para obtener un préstamo. Originación de préstamos están en niveles más bajos ahora que la burbuja inmobiliaria ha estallado. Hay señales de que el mercado inmobiliario está regresando sin embargo. Las ejecuciones hipotecarias han ido en aumento. Esquemas de fraude de hipotecas ahora persiguen los propietarios que están atrasados en sus pagos. Fraude propietario apenada prevalece. Pueden pretender "salvar" a una casa de una ejecución hipotecaria o conseguir el prestatario una modificación de préstamo. A veces, el FBI puede utilizar agentes encubiertos que usan grabaciones para reunir pruebas contra un acusado potencial de fraude hipotecario o fraude propietarios en dificultades. Quién está envuelto? A veces, se trata de abogados, agentes inmobiliarios, banqueros, contadores, tasadores.